Obtaining Colombian citizenship involves following a process that entails specific procedures and requirements established by the country’s laws. These procedures aim to ensure the applicant’s eligibility and commitment to Colombia as their new home.
The Political Constitution states that there are two ways to obtain Colombian citizenship: by birth or by adoption.
Citizenship by Birth
Individuals born in Colombia within the limits of the national territory, with at least one of their parents being a Colombian citizen, automatically obtain Colombian citizenship. For those born abroad, adequate documentation is required to verify their parents’ nationality and the place of birth.
The National Civil Registry is the entity responsible for verifying and granting citizenship by birth, with the duty to identify and register Colombian citizens.
Citizenship by Adoption
Naturalization for foreigners seeking Colombian citizenship is achieved through the Letter of Naturalization or the Resolution of Registration. Foreigners interested in obtaining citizenship must follow a naturalization procedure at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Requirements for Naturalization
Having a resident visa and demonstrating the period of residence in Colombia.
Maintaining a minimum continuous residence of five years before the application.
Reduction to a two-year continuous residence period if married to a Colombian, having Colombian children, or in cases of reciprocity with the home country.
Submitting a formal application with documents such as the resident visa, foreigner’s ID card, passport, birth certificate, among others that certify profession and economic activities.
Demonstrating knowledge of the Political Constitution, history, culture, and geography of Colombia through an exam, except in exceptional cases.
Exceptions and Special Authorizations
Some circumstances exempt individuals from the knowledge exam, such as being over 60 years old, possessing an academic degree obtained in Colombia, having a cognitive disability, or being part of indigenous communities.
In situations where the applicant cannot meet a requirement, they must submit a request to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs explaining the reasons. The Ministry will evaluate the possibility of substituting the missing requirement to continue the process.
The naturalization process can be completed online by visiting the official website of the Colombian Foreign Ministry and filling out the form in the link.